Absolute superlatives are used to express the quality of something in its absolute highest degree without comparing it to something else.
La tarea de español está facilísima.
Spanish is a piece of cake.
As you can see from the example, in other languages, like English, there are phrases that convey the meaning that something has the highest degree (like "a piece of cake"). In Spanish, you will use adverbs or suffixes instead.
You might already know how to use adverbs in absolute superlatives. This is done simply by placing adverbs like muy or extremadamente before the adjective.
El perrito es muy querido por sus dueños.
The dog is very loved by its owners.
However, in this article, you will learn how to use suffixes to express this function.
The Suffix -ísimo(a) - Usage
Rule 1. When you attach the suffix -ísimo(s) or -ísima(s) to the end of an adjective, it changes it to an absolute superlative. In other words, it is used to express a quality in its highest degree. These are mostly used in informal language.
El perrito es querídismo por sus dueños.
The puppy is very loved by its owners.
As you can notice in the example, the speaker is attaching -ísimo to the adjective querido to emphasize how much love the dog receives.
The Suffix -ísimo(a) - Form
Adjectives ending in vowels
Rule 2. For feminine adjectives ending in vowels, first, drop the last vowel of the singular form, then attach the suffix -ísima(s). When the suffix is attached, the adjective still has to agree in number and gender with the subject.
Estas papas están picosísimas.
These potatoes are very spicy.
Rule 3. For masculine adjectives ending in vowels, first, drop the last vowel of the singular form, then attach the suffix -ísimo(s). Remember that after adding the suffix, the adjective still has to agree in number and gender with the subject.
Aquellos muchachos están musculosísimos.
Those guys are muscled up to the max.
Adjectives ending in consonants
Rule 4. For feminine adjectives ending in consonants, you don't have to drop any letter to attach the suffix. Simply attach -ísima(s) to the end of the adjective in its singular form. Always consider that after attaching the suffix, the adjective has to agree in number with the subject.
La sopa de mi mamá es facilísima de hacer.
My mom's soup is very easy to make.
Rule 5. For negative adjectives ending in consonants, you also don't have to drop any letter to attach the suffix. Simply attach -ísimo(s) to the end of the adjective.
Los pendientes de hoy están dificilísimos.
Today's earrings are very difficult.
It is very important to keep the accent mark from the suffix.
Adjectives that change to keep the sound
Rule 6. Some adjectives change the last part of the word in order to keep the sound. This mostly applies to adjectives ending in -co, -co, -go, and -ga.
For instance, for the adjective rico:
1. First, drop the o, considering the rules for adjectives ending in vowels.
2. Then, the c changes to q in its superlative form in order to keep the sound.
Estos platillos están riquísimos.
These dishes are delicious.
Here are other examples:
Adjectives ending in -z
Rule 7. Lastly, words that end in -z change to c in their absolute form.
Absolute superlatives can also be created with prefixes. There are also irregular adjectives that in their absolute form are used in cultured language (instead of informal language). You will learn these further on.
La comida estuvo rica.