1. Using the Pretérito Perfecto
  2. Forming the Pretérito Perfecto

El pretérito perfecto is similar to the present perfect in English. Conjugating verbs in this tense can be simple, but you need to learn a few rules first.



He estudiado español por 3 años.

I have studied Spanish for 3 years.

Using the Pretérito Perfecto

Rule 1. The pretérito perfecto tense is only used to express an action that took place in the past but still applies or is connected to the present.



He trabajado en esta compañía por 10 años.

I have worked in this company for 10 years.

Forming the Pretérito Perfecto

Rule 2. An important characteristic of compound tenses is that they require the auxiliary verb haber. Pretérito perfecto requires the verb haber in the present tense.

Subject PronounHaber
yo he
él, ella, usted ha
nosotros, nosotras hemos
vosotros, vosotras habéis
ellos, ellas, ustedes han

Rule 3. To form the present perfect tense, you need to add a verb in past participle to the auxiliary verb. Past participle verbs are those ending in -ado (verbs ending in -ar) or -ido (verbs ending in -er, -ir).



He manejado durante cinco días, ya no puedo más.

I've been driving for five days, I can't take it anymore.

Regular Verbs in Past Participle

Rule 4. Regular verbs are those that don't undergo changes when put into the past participle form.

Verb in Infinitive FormStemPast Participle Form
Hablar Habl Hablado
Comer Com Comido
Vivir Viv Vivido

Irregular Verbs in Past Participle

Rule 5. On the other hand, irregular verbs change their stem when conjugated. A good example is the verb escribir.

Infinitive FormIncorrectCorrect
escribir escribido escrito

As you can see, simply adding the past participle suffix is not correct because this verb has a change in its stem, which makes it irregular.

Other irregular verbs are:

Infinitive FormIrregular Form
abrir abierto
decir dicho
freir frito
hacer hecho
morir muerto
imprimir impreso
poner puesto
ver visto
volver vuelto



Alicia y Roberto ____________ salido por 4 meses.


correct answers.