1. What Is the Gerundio?
  2. How Is the Gerundio Formed?
  3. Some Irregularities of the Gerundio
  4. Verbal periphrasis estar + gerundio
  5. How is the Verbal Periphrasis estar + gerundio formed?

The gerund (el gerundio) is an impersonal form of the verb that is very commonly used in Spanish.



Estoy viendo una serie.

I am watching a series.

What Is the Gerundio?

Rule 1. The gerundio in Spanish is a non-personal form of the verb, just like the participle and the infinitive.

Verbs in these forms are not conjugated according to a person or pronoun (like yo, tú, él, etc.), which is why they are called non-personal. For the same reason, verbs in gerund do not have a number, tense, or mood either.

How Is the Gerundio Formed?

Forming the gerund is pretty simple.

Rule 2. First, take the infinitive form of the verb, i.e., a verb that has not been conjugated yet.

-ar ending verbs-er ending verbs-ir ending verbs
infinitive form hablar comer escribir

Rule 3. Remove the infinitive ending (-ar, -er, -ir) and add the corresponding gerund endings for each category of verbs, as shown below.

InfinitiveGerund endingExample
-ar ending verbs such as hablar add - ando hablando
-er ending verbs such as comer add - iendo comiendo
-ir ending verbs such as escribir add - iendo escribiendo

Some Irregularities of the Gerundio

Rule 4. If some verbs' stems change in the present indicative, they will continue to change in the gerund.

Verbs with stem changesPresent indicativeGerund
-e > -ie/-i tú dices tú estás diciendo
-o > -ue tú duermes tú estás durmiendo

Rule 5. If the stem ends in a vowel, the i in -iendo becomes a y.

leer leiendo leyendo
ir iendo yendo

Verbal periphrasis estar + gerundio

Rule 6. One of the main uses of the gerund is forming the verbal periphrasis Estar + gerundio, which is used to:

  • talk about ongoing actions, very similar to the present progressive in English.



Estoy hablando por teléfono, dame un segundo.

I am talking on the phone, give me a second.

  • talk about actions that are frequently performed. It is usually accompanied by expressions such as siempre, todo el día, and todo el tiempo.



Manuel siempre está pensando en esa niña.

Manuel is always thinking about that girl.

How is the Verbal Periphrasis estar + gerundio formed?

Rule 6. As the name suggests, this verbal periphrasis is formed by conjugating the verb estar (can be in any tense) with the impersonal gerund form of the verb.

PersonEstar (present)Gerundio (hablar)
yo estoy hablando
tú, vos estás hablando
él, ella, usted está hablando
nosotros, nosotras estamos hablando
vosotros, vosotras estáis hablando
ellos, ellas, ustedes están hablando

Here is an example of the use of estar + gerund in a conversation in the present indicative.



- ¿Dónde está mi papá?

- Está haciendo la cena.

- ¿y Alejandro?

- Está viendo la tele.

- Where is my dad?

- He is making dinner.

- And Alejandro?

- He's watching TV.



What is the gerund of the verb comprar?


correct answers.