The present perfect continuous tense, also known as the present perfect progressive, is generally used to put an emphasis on the procces or result of an action in the recent past without specifying the time.
Signal words for the present perfect continuous tense include lately, all day, the whole week, since 1995, for 3 years, etc.
My mom has been working as an accountant for 15 years.
Here, the present perfect countinuous tense describes the action that has started in the past and emphasizes its progress.
Rule 1: To form the present perfect continuous tense, we use the structure have/has + been + verb in the -ing form.
Here is an overview of how to conjugate the present perfect continuous in positive, negative and interrogative sentences:
|I / you / we / they||I have been watching.||You have not been watching.||Have they been watching?|
|he / she / it||He has been watching.||She has not been watching.||Has it been watching?|
Note: In spoken and informal English, we can also use contractions in the present perfect continuous tense - a short form of the verb have and particle not.
Here's an overview of contractions for the present perfect continuous tense:
|have / have not||'ve / 've not, haven't||we've / we've not, we haven't|
|has / has not||'s / 's not, hasn't||he's / he's not, he hasn't|
Rule 2: We use the present perfect continuous tense to describe an action in the recent past with emphasis on the action itself, not its result.
My grandma has been cleaning in the garden all morning.
The present perfect continuous is used to emphasize the action (cleaning in the garden) in the recent past (all morning).
Rule 3: We use the present perfect continuous tense to describe a single continuing action that started in the past and is incomplete, i.e., is still in progress at the present moment.
Gardening is her passion, but she has been working as a teacher for 30 years.
She still works as a teacher, therefore, the action is incomplete.
Rule 4: We use the present perfect continuous tense to describe repeated actions that started in the past and continue now.
She has been showing interest in gardening since she was a little kid.
She is still interested in gardening, meaning that the action started in the past and continues now.
Complete the sentence. I ___ been studying all day.