- Spelling Rules
- Irregular Plural Endings
- Nouns Without Plural Ending
We can use nouns in the English language in their singular or plural form. Singular nouns are used to describe that there is just one of something. Plural nouns are used to describe that there is more than one.
one car; many cars
one car - singular; many cars - plural
Rule 1: We can form the plural by adding an -s to the singular.
Rule 2: With nouns that end with -s, -ch, -x, -z, we can form the plural by adding -es to the singular. Also, a -z at the end of a noun is doubled.
Rule 3: With nouns that end with -o, we can form the plural by adding -es to the singular. But, with nouns that end with vowel + o, abbreviations, and nouns that originate from foreign languages, we can form the plural using -s only.
|piano||pianos||originated from Italian|
Rule 4: With nouns that end with -y after a consonant, we can form the plural by adding -s and changing -y to -ie.
Note: In nouns that end with -y after a vowel, the ending before -s doesn’t change.
|library||libraries||-y after a consonant|
|toy||toys||-y after a vowel|
Rule 5: With many nouns that end with -f or -fe, we can form the plural by adding -es and changing -f/-fe to -v.
Irregular Plural Endings
Rule 6: Some English singular nouns have special plural forms that should be remembered separately.
Here are some of the most common English nouns with irregular plural endings:
Nouns Without Plural Ending
Rule 7: Some English nouns have the same endings in both singular and plural forms. These include some nouns whose singular form ends with -s, certain animals, and means of transportation ending with -craft.
|crossroads||crossroads||singular ends with -s|
|aircraft||aircraft||means of transportation ending with -craft|
Form the plural. Every week has 7 ___.